Project Description

Flare Systems

Types of Flares

There are two general families of flare systems that Tornado works with: Utility Flares and Engineered Smokeless Flares.

Utility Flares

A Utility (non-assisted) flare is the most basic type of flare. The flare’s height is calculated based on the radiation and dispersion flaring emissions at the ground that are caused by the combustion process.

A utility flare tip’s internal diameter is sized based on:

  • The exit velocity of the flare, and
  • The allowable pressure drop

Engineered Smokeless Flares:

Tornado has developed a broad range of assisted flares specifically designed to meet a large spectrum of gas compositions and varied operating conditions. Waste gases burn cleanly and without visible black smoke to meet the most stringent regulations. All designs are driven by flare performance and operating costs. Assisted tips can even be retrofitted onto existing flares cost effectively.

Air-Assist Flares

Air Assisted Smokeless Combustion exists where air is added to the Waste Gas Stream at the tip of the Flare stack to eliminate smoking.

There are two different Air Assist Flare Types typically provided by Tornado:

  1. Retrofit Air Assisted Flare.

    This type of air assisted flare is where Tornado takes an existing Utility Flare that is smoking and provides an external air duct, tip and blower to convert it to a smokeless air assisted flare.

  2. New Air Assisted Flare.

    This type of application is where either Tornado or you have determined that the waste stream will smoke and that an air assisted flare is the best choice to prevent the stream from smoking during flaring. This design has less thermal stress, and is more aesthetically pleasing than a retrofit design mentioned above and as such is used on most new air assist flare projects.

Click here to see details of a 275-foot tall air-assisted Emergency Relief Flare built by Tornado.

Assist OFF:  This flare
is producing a rich orange flame with lots
of smoke.

Assist ON:   Cleaner combustion

High Pressure Gas-Assist Flares

The general principle behind gas-assisted flares is to introduce a high pressure gas to the waste steam just after exiting the flare tip to eliminate smoking.

The addition of gas will increase the radiation produced by the flare, which may in turn add to the overall flare’s required height to compensate. Let Tornado Technologies assist you with determining if gas assisted or air assisted flaring is the best choice to eliminate or prevent a smoking flare.

Steam-Assist Flares

The general principle behind steam-assisted flares is to introduce high pressure steam to the waste gas steam just after exiting the flare tip.

Low-Pressure Gas-Assist

A low pressure gas assist maybe required when flaring acid/toxic gases with low heating values. The ring burner creates a flame curtain between the tip of the flare and the ignition point of the flare’s flame front to ensure that any reactants do not escape without first hitting a flame. Thus 100% of the gas exiting the flare is given the required energy to combust.

Sonic Flares

Sonic flares are used when the waste gas volumes to be flared are of an extreme level. A sonic flare creates the most noise, longest flame length, highest pressures, and most radiation. They should only be considered when there is no concern about noise, radiation or flame length.


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